The time the Holy Quran was revealed, the human
understanding of the nature of the cosmos and the movement or the stillness of
the heavenly bodies was extremely primitive and obscure. This is no longer the
case, as our knowledge of the universe has considerably advanced and expanded
by the present age.
Some of the theories relating to the creation of
the universe have been verified as facts, whereas some others are still being
explored. The concept of the expanding universe belongs to the former category,
and has been universally accepted by the scientific community as 'fact'. This
discovery was first made by Edwin Hubble in the 1920s. Yet some thirteen
centuries before this, it was clearly mentioned in the Quran:
the heaven We built with Our own powers (aydin) and indeed We
go on expanding it (musi'un) (51:48).
The discovery that the universe is constantly
expanding is of prime significance to scientists, because it helps create a
better understanding of how the universe was initially created. It clearly
explains the stage by stage process of creation, in a manner which perfectly
falls into step with the theory of the Big Bang. The Quran goes further and
describes the entire cycle of the beginning, the end and the return again to a
similar beginning. The first step of creation as related in the Quran
accurately describes the event of the Big Bang in the following words:
not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were a closed-up mass
(ratqan), then We clove them asunder (fataqna)? And We made
from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? ()
It is significant that this verse is
specifically addressed to non-believers, implying perhaps, that the unveiling
of the secret mentioned in this verse would be made by the non-believers, a
sign for them of the truth of the Quran.
In this verse the words ratqan (closed-up
mass), and fataqna (We clove them asunder), carry the basic message of
the whole verse. Authentic Arabic lexicons3
give two meanings of ratqan, that have great relevance to the topic
under discussion. One meaning is 'the coming together of something and the
consequent infusion into a single entity' and the second meaning is 'total
darkness'. Both these meanings are significantly applicable. Taken together,
they offer an apt description of the singularity of a black hole.
A BLACK HOLE is a gravitationally collapsed mass of
colossal size. It begins with the collapse of such massive stars as are 15 or
more times the size of the sun. The immensity of their inward gravitational
pull causes the stars to collapse into a much smaller size. The gravitational
pull is further concentrated and results in the further collapse of the entire
mass into a supernova. At this stage the basic bricks of matter such as
molecules, atoms etc. begin to be crushed into a nondescript mass of energy.
Thus that moment in space-time is created which is called event horizon.
The inward gravitational pull of that something becomes so powerful that all
forms of radiation are pulled back so that even light cannot escape. A
resultant total darkness ensues which earns it the name black hole,
reminding one of the word ratqan used by the Quran indicating total
darkness. This is called singularity which lies beyond the event
A black hole once created grows rapidly because
even distant stars begin to be pulled in with the progressive concentration of
gravitational energy. It is estimated that the mass of a black hole could grow
as large as a hundred million times the mass of the sun. As its gravitational
field widens, more material from space is drawn in at a speed close to that of
light. In 1997 there was observational evidence suggesting that in our galaxy a
black hole of 2,000,000 solar masses existed. But other calculations show that
in our universe there could be many black holes as big as 3,000,000,000 solar
masses. At that concentration of gravitational pull even distant stars would
stagger and lose their mooring to be devoured by a glutton of such magnitude.
Thus the process of ratqan is completed resulting into that singularity
which is both completely closed as well as comprising total darkness. In answer
to the question as to how the universe was initially created, the two most
recent theories are both Big Bang theories. They claim that it was initiated
from a singularity which suddenly erupted releasing the trapped mass leading
yet again into the creation of a new universe through the event horizon. This
dawn of light sprouting from the event horizon is called the white hole.
One of the two theories relating to the expansion predicts that the universe
thus created will carry on expanding forever. The other claims that the
expansion of the universe will, at some time, be reversed because the inward
gravitational pull will ultimately prevail. Eventually, all matter will be
pulled back again to form perhaps another gigantic black hole. This latter view
appears to be supported by the Quran.
Whilst speaking of the first creation of the
universe, the Quran clearly describes its ending into yet another black hole,
connecting the end to the beginning, thus completing the full circle of the
story of cosmos. The Quran declares:
Remember the day when We shall roll up
the heavens like the rolling up of written scrolls... (21:105)
The clear message of this verse is that the universe is not
eternal. It speaks of a future when the heavens will be rolled up, in a manner
similar to the rolling up of a scroll. Scientific descriptions illustrating the
making of a black hole, very closely resemble what the Quran describes in the
A mass of accretion from space falling into a
black hole, as described above, would be pressed into a sheet under the
enormous pressure created by the gravitational and electromagnetic forces. As
the centre of the black hole is constantly revolving around itself, this
sheetóas it approachesówill begin to be wrapped around it, before disappearing
into the realm of the unknown at last.
The verse continues:
As We began the first creation, so shall We repeat it; a promise binding
on Us; that We shall certainly fulfill. (21:105)
Following the eventual collapse of the universe
into a black hole, here we have the promise of a new beginning. God will
recreate the universe, as He had done before. The collapsed universe will
re-emerge from its darkness and the whole process of creation will start yet
again This wrapping up and unfolding of the universe appears to be an ongoing
phenomenon, according to the Holy Quran.
This Quranic concept of the beginning and the
end of the creation is undoubtedly extraordinary. It would not have been less
amazing if it had been revealed to a highly educated person of our contemporary
age, but one is wonder-struck by the fact that this most advanced knowledge,
regarding the perpetually repeating phenomenon of creation, was revealed more
than fourteen hundred years ago to an unlettered dweller of the Arabian Desert.
The Quran and the Heavenly Bodies
Now we turn to another aspect of the description of the cosmos which relates to
the motion of the heavenly bodies. The most striking feature of this
description relates to the way the motion of the earth is described without
glaringly contradicting the popular view prevailing in that age. All the
scholars and sages of that time were unanimous in their belief that the earth
is stationary while other heavenly bodies like the sun and the moon are
constantly revolving around it. In view of this, the motion of the earth as
described by the Quran may not be apparent to the casual reader, but to a
careful student the message is loud and clear. If the Quran had described the
earth as stationary and the heavenly bodies as revolving around it, then
although the people of that time might have been satisfied with this
description, the people of the later ages would have treated that statement as
a proof of the ignorance of the Quran's author. Such a statement, they would
emphasize, could not have been made by an All-Knowing, Supreme Being.
Rather than literally comparing the motion of
the earth to that of other heavenly bodies, the Quran makes the following
mountains that you see, you think they are stationary while they are constantly
floating like the floating of clouds. Such is the work of Allah Who made
everything firm and strong. (27:89)
If the mountains are declared to be in constant
motion, then the only logical inference to be drawn from this would be that the
earth is also rotating along with them. But thanks to the masterly language of
the Quran this observation went unnoticed. They had the impression, shared with
the rest of mankind, that the earth was stationary and it was this false
impression that was not obtrusively challenged. If they had read with care the
end of the same verse they would have been left with no room for any
misunderstanding. It ends with a lasting tribute to the creative faculty of
God, Who has created all things with such firmness that they cannot be dislodged.
Anything which cannot be dislodged can never be catapulted out of the earth, to
fly alone, leaving the earth behind.
Again, in many other verses the Quran refers to
the mountains as ravasiya which means 'firmly rooted in the earth':
has created the heavens without any pillars that you can see, and He has placed
in the earth firm mountains that it may not quake with you, and He has
scattered therein all kinds of creatures; and We have sent down water from the
clouds, and caused to grow therein every noble species. (31:11)
We have made in the earth firm mountains, that they may provide them the living
food, and We have made therein wide pathways that they may be rightly guided. ()
He has placed in the earth firm mountains that they may provide you food, and
rivers and routes that you may be guided.()
Thus, the Holy Quran exquisitely succeeds in
making this revelation in a manner that the prevalent knowledge of that time is
not too loudly challenged. It is likely that the people may have believed verse
89 of Surah Al-Naml, referred to a future event associated with Doomsday. But
as has been demonstrated, this misinterpretation would be absolutely
unacceptable for the following reasons:
The verse clearly speaks in the present tense and not
in the future tense. The letter ()
vaow used here can literally be translated as 'while' instead of
'and', so the meaning could be, 'you think the mountains are
stationary, while they are moving'. To refer this part of the
statement to the future is impermissible.
If they, the mountains, were to fly in the future
then how could man, even if he were perched at a safe distance on another
planet, believe them to be stationary despite watching them flying in
space? Hence such a translation is out of the question. Also, to translate
this verse to indicate that though humans today consider the mountains to
be stationary, they are not so because in future they will fly, would be
evidently wrong. If the mountains are stationary today the humans would
certainly see them to be stationary. It is not a question of their thinking
them to be stationary. The Quran would have said 'You know them to be
stationary and so they are but in future they will no longer be so'.
This is not what the Quran says at all.
At the end of the same verse, a tribute to the
firmness of God's creation is the last clinching proof that the mountains,
despite flying, are firmly entrenched.
It is noteworthy that the early commentaries
maintain silence on the true meaning of this verse which suggests that it was
too difficult for them to interpret.
The Holy Quran also pronounces that all heavenly
bodies are in a constant state of motion; none of them is stationary:
Everything is gliding along smoothly in its orbit. ()
This all-embracing statement covers the entire
universe, our solar system being no exception. In addition to this, there are
many other verses which mention the elliptical movement of all the heavenly
bodies. But they also speak of their movement towards their destined time of
death. Following are some of the verses which cover both subjects:
is He Who raised up the heavens without any pillars that you can see. Then He
settled Himself on the Throne. And He pressed the sun and the moon into
service. All pursue their course until an appointed time. He regulates it all.
He clearly explains the Signs, that you may have a firm belief in the meeting
with your Lord. (13:3)
thou not seen that Allah makes the night pass into the day, and makes the day
pass into the night, and He has pressed the sun and the moon into service; all
pursuing their course till an appointed term, and Allah is well aware of what
you do?14 (31:30)
merges the night into the day, and He merges the day into the night. And He has
pressed into service the sun and the moon; each one runs its course to
an appointed term. Such is Allah, your Lord; His is the kingdom, and those whom
you call upon beside Allah own not even a whit. (35:14)
created the heavens and earth in accordance with the requirements of wisdom. He
makes the night to cover the day, and He makes the day to cover the night; and
He has pressed the sun and the moon into service; each pursues its
course until an appointed time. Hearken; it is He alone Who is the
Mighty, the Great Forgiver (39:6)
NOW we turn to another amazing revelation of the
Quran regarding a specific motion of the sun which is mentioned nowhere else.
This verse 36:39, pronounces,
the sun is constantly moving in the direction of its ultimate abode of rest.
This is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. (36:39)
It clearly speaks of a point in space to be the
sun's final resting place. Despite the fact that it is only the sun which is
mentioned, the verses which immediately follow bind the entire universe to the
movement of the sun in the same specific direction:
the sun is constantly moving in the direction of its ultimate abode of rest.
This is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing.†
for the moon We have regulated stages until it looks like a thin branch of an
old palm tree.
does it behove for the sun to overtake the moon nor for the night to overtake
the day ... (36:39-14)
it were only the sun which was moving in a fixed direction, the verse which
follows this statement would not have proclaimed that the sun and the moon
strictly maintain their mutual distance; they will never be able to gain or
move away from each other, an unchangeable destiny till their appointed time.
This clearly shows that in whatever direction the sun is moving, the moon is
But it is not only the question of the sun and
the moon. All the heavenly bodies are described in the Quran as soundlessly
floating. Again there are numerous verses in the Quran which describe the
heavenly bodies bound together with invisible links. Hence if one of them moves
in a direction other than its orbital and elliptical motion, all the other
heavenly bodies must also move along to maintain their mutual balance.
He it is Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon;
everything gliding along in orbit. ()
is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor can the night outstrip the day.
All float in an orbit.(36:41)
This is a unique style of the Quran also
employed for indicating the movement of the earth upon its axis. The people of
the time of both these revelations could not clearly grasp the underlying idea.
If the mountains are moving the earth must also move along, but this is not
what the people of that age inferred. Nor could they grasp the idea that if the
sun is moving in the direction of a specific space, the entire universe must
also be moving along with it to the same destination. This vision of the entire
universe drifting away in space is an idea which perhaps has not as yet been
conceived by contemporary scientists. Yet it can be implied from an in-depth
study of the Quran that the entire cosmos is moving towards some point in
space. If that implication is true then one is left with no choice but to
visualize all 180 billion or more galaxies, of which our planetary system is
but a tiny dot, to be moving along with the sun in a set direction.
ELSEWHERE IN THE CHAPTER we have suggested the
possibility of an all-consuming gigantic black hole which may pull back the
entire universal mass into its singularity.
As such, we have concluded that according to the
Quran the case of the universe is an open and shut case. At the moment of the
Big Bang it began to expand almost at the speed of light. At the end it will
once again be drawn back into the abyss which we refer to as a black hole.
As far as the concept of a single universal
black hole is concerned, it is based on the Big Bang theory which is fully
supported by the Quran. Some scientists however, propose the case of an open
universe. They believe that the universe will continue to expand forever and
ever until the spacial matter becomes too thin and sparse, and extends beyond
the gravitational pull of the centre of the universe. This scenario leaves no
room for the universe to be reassembled and recreated. The Quran categorically
rejects this open concept. It is loud, clear and specific that from a
singularity the universe erupted, and back into another singularity it will
sink again. The Unity of God and its creative outburst and the return of the
creation again to the Unity of God could not have been better expressed than:
To God we belong and to Him shall we return. ()
SCIENCE & RELIGION CONNECT-BIBLE CODE UNLOCKED!According to the Bible the world has been created in six days,but according to the Science this process has taken billions of years.If we exclude the difference in time and we pay attention to the SEQUENCE,we will see that there is no contradiction between both,but only the question-why in the Bible things happened so fast?There is an answer and it`s in the Bible itself.Moses described the Creation from his own sight as an eyewitness.Where and when he saw It,how could he have seen something happen before his existence?Answer:For forty days he has been at the mount Sinai where he got information about the past,present and future.The Creation had been REcreated to him in six days there,he had seen how the already existing world had been made.The long process of evolution had been shown to him in the first six days and the SEVENTH day had been dedicated to human`s appearing.After that he had seen the difference between Adam`s origin and Eve`s one.Adam comes from the dirt in the process of evolution,but Eve comes from DNA material out his body,which marks another jump for the evolution or in other words-the"missing link" which Science is looking for.The Creation continue and The Next Jump Is Coming...2012?!
Respected writer has presented his point of view in a very beautiful manner. But it is just a hypothesis until it is supported by exact references from the Holy Bible. If the writer had based his postulates on the verses of the Holy Bible and it seemed as if the Bible was supporting his arguments, the interpretation would be more appealing.